Scope of Certification
How to get
By bus - Scheduled bus Baku-Beylagan – 6 hours
Beylagan district is situated between Kura River in the north and Iranian border in the south. Along the territory of the area, Topgarabag channel flows thereon. Beylagan area possesses by such lions as Ancient City of Beylagan having been founded under several sources being still in V century by Sasanid governer Gubad I. Diggings of the ancient city Orengala (Baylakan) near Keberli village in Mil steppe, in inter two of Kura Araz rivers, gave richest material on culture of medieval centuries. City with the walls at a height nearly of 6 m occupied square amounted to 400000 sq m. Not far from it, here were remains of the well - known ancient irrigating Gaurrarkh channel and ruins of Mil-Minaret, with which it is, bound the name of steppe. Name of Orengala was found out on vessels ("made by Fadlun in Baylakan"). City wall had been constructed in V-VI centuries - in settings it was found out glazing ceramic of IX-X centuries and abbasid coins, products made of metals, glass and bone.
In IX-X centuries in Baylakan it was modernized the technic of encaustic of ceramic products. Handed pottery round disk was almost fully displaced by leg's. The enormous achievement of Baylakan pottery craftsmen is widen usage of angoba and glazing in ceramic. Having produced glass vessels it was used free blowing, blowing in shape and casting in shape. The biggest success was achieved as well as in mastering of methods of colored glass to be received. There were developed weaving, silk farming, carpet weaving. Its sweeties - natif, famed Baylakan.
About the most earlier trading links of Baylakan with other countries it witnesses, being discovered while making diggings of drachma of Sasanid Tsar Khosrova II (590-628), later Sasanid gems and earlier Arabian coins. Starting from the end of the third quarter VIII - the first years of IX century in Baylakan were coined silver dirhems and copper fells with picture thereon words of Arran. Dirhems had been passable beyond Baylakan: they were found out on the territory of Kiev Russia and in Baltic countries.
Life of Baylakan town attains florescence in IX century - in the beginning of XIII century. There are many structural ceramic materials; figure bricks and tiles were increased. It was modernized the technique of structures to being erected. Many palaces were laid up. Even in outskirts of Baylakan, there were emerged monumental defensive and cultured structures, made of burned brick with usage of decor of various colored tiles. Water flowed to the town from Gaurarkh channel through tube closed channels from encaustic brick with usage of decor of varicolored tiles, as well as through compound sewage pottery pipes.
Under diggings, it was found out bowls and dumb-bells intended for weigh balances of rocks, ferrous and bronze. Bowls with chops - marks of craftsmen were discovered in amount of 150 pieces. Iranian faience, Chinese celadon, kauri clamshells taken from India, Fragments of Arabian glass, big quantity of coins, shells all of them were found out therein.
Should poured ceramic of IX-X centuries is decorated, preferably with hermetic or vegetables ornaments, rare with picture of animals and fishes and more rare, men, in XI-XIII centuries the round of pictures thereon is considerably expanded. Painters are applied to ethic motives being not yet forgotten from ancients of Sasanids. These are Baylakan bowls with portrayals of household of feudal nobility and legendary tsars. Such kind pictures painted thereon, especially distinctive for Azerbaijan ceramic.
Since autumn of 1221, it is commenced tragic history of Baylakan. Thirty thousand squad of Mongolian invaders under leadership of generals - noyons of Jebe and Sabutay, defeat the town, and in spite of heroic defense of citizens, "with force it was captured by hijra in Ramadan in 618 and they operated by their swords like that they did not leave therein anyone - no young men, no old men, no women" Intrusion of enemies into the city was so unexpected, that craftsmen did not manage unload pottery furnaces.
While making diggings works in dwellings there were found out large amount of ceramic dishes, burned stocks of products, cereals, copper coins, glasses, labor weapons, domestic articles - when as products made of noble metals are almost in lack. City was first robbed and after burned out. Most part of population of Baylakan did not come back to their houses. Mongols destroyed ancient irrigating system, having supplied with water taken from Araz and the richest terrain earlier or later have had to be transferred into desert.
Attempts made by Sharaf al-Mulk, Timur and his assignees to revive life in Baylakan were not crowned with success. Mongolian ruins of Baylakan town were as much as forced that some of historians, being not believed in disappearance of city, explained that event as force major of nature. Baylakan city had fallen under shots of conquerors, but its historical heroism lived long time among people, being transferred from generation to generation.
Today, modern Beylagan - this is florescent growing agriculture area. In not far past term is one of the biggest cotton farming areas of the Republic.
|Beylagan (7 excurion routes)|
1. Survey excursion (1 hour) throughout Beylagan city with visiting a local lore museum.
2. A sanctuary “Jerjis Piri” / a pagan temple – burial place “Sacred George” / (XVI century), in territory of former state farm #5.
3. A place of archeological excavations on an ancient site of ancient settlement “Orengala” / a place of accommodation the well-known medieval Paytakaran city (IV-XIV centuries) a provincial center of Caucasian Albania state /, in one-nominal tract.
4. Archeological excavations on a site of ancient settlement “Chardakhly” (the beginning of the bronze period - XI-XIII centuries) and medieval settlement “Kultepe”, not far from Ashagy Chemenli settlement in Beylagan region.
5. Ancient settlement (the beginning of the Middle Ages) and Nekropol with pitcher burial places (the antique period) at Tezekend settlement (Beylagan region).
6. Archeologic researches on ancient “Sultanvud” settlement (the period of bronze).
7. Places of archeological excavations on an ancient cemetery “Sarytepe” (VII-VI centuries B.C.), in Birinji Ashygly settlement in Beylagan region.